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else 10.7: A Dread Pirate Gives Up His Bitcoins

By - October 06, 2013

Anonymity on the web becomes increasingly fractious as Tor and Bitcoin come into question with recent headline-grabbing stories. A quick scan of this weekend’s NYTimes reveals three big articles on the novel ways our digital histories stay with us. Clearly, our story has come to the fore.

This week, we’re also looking forward this coming week’s OpenCo and the Quantified Self global conference, both in San Francisco. As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

The Dread Pirate Roberts, AKA Ross William Ulbricht, may suffer from the seedy reputation of the Silk Road, but as goes Silk Road, so go more legitimate uses of online anonymity.

FBI’s Case Against Silk Road Boss Is A Fascinating Read – Techdirt
The capture and revelation of dramatic details of the Ulbricht’s Silk Road drug trafficking website has called into question both legitimate and seedy uses of anonymous technologies like Tor and Bitcoin. NSA and GCHQ target Tor network that protects anonymity of web users – The Guardian
Tor, a routing system that masks traffic through a network of relaying nodes, isn’t safe from government spying. The latest Guardian NSA piece describes measures designed to peel ‘back the layers of Tor with EgotisticalGiraffe.’

How a Purse Snatching Led to the Legal Justification for NSA Domestic Spying – Wired
The unlikely story behind the precedent for monitoring metadata with a “pen register” illustrates how our technical systems outpace or legal means for dealing with them.

When Meta Met Data – NYTimes
There was a time when “meta” meant something self-referential and funny. This is a thoughtful take on cultural shifts as we begin to understand what our metadata says about us.

Rage Against the Algorithms – The Atlantic
“Algorithms, driven by vast troves of data, are the new power brokers in society, both in the corporate world as well as in government.” Makes the case for journalists and others to reverse-engineer these black boxes to better understand how they work and to develop algorithmic accountability.

Selling Secrets of Phone Users to Advertisers – NYTimes
Getting beyond cookies to bridge ad experiences across all connected devices, from desktop to tablet to phone.

Mugged by a Mug Shot Online – NYTimes
The business of reputation management is lucrative for these exploitative sites with high SEO ranking that bring up mugshots, long after you’ve been cleared.

Deciding Who Sees Students’ Data  – NYTimes
Systems for managing and tracking students’ progress offer great potential in personalizing education, but we’re still figuring out where more student data is appropriately applied and used.

Living with Data: Personal Data Uses of the Quantified Self – Sara M. Watson
I posted my thesis on the Quantified Self in full for those interested: “As Big Data becomes standard practice and more sensors enter into our homes, cars,devices, and bodies, data proliferates. This will happen whether or not we are actively engaged in the creation and uses of data. As such, we are all becoming quantified selves. We have a responsibility in this emerging data environment to recognize and engage with this fact. If we ignore this reality, we risk losing our agency.”

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else 9.30: The “Monkeys with Typewriter” Algorithm

By - September 30, 2013

This week, the blind see with data, algorithms are uncovered, networks are analyzed, and data remains siloed. As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

Disruptions: Visually Impaired Turn to Smartphones to See Their World – NYTimes
Assistive technologies in smart phones help the blind read the world as data.

Eulogy for a Horse – Dan Sinker
Susan Orlean broke that the @horse_ebooks twitter account that tweeted seemingly random selections from books is not a bot, but performance art. The internet got up in arms about the revelation, mostly because it disrupted our desire to believe that there was beauty in algorithms and randomness. Dan Sinker (of @MayorEmanuel parody twitter account fame) offers some final thoughts for his “monkey Shakespeare.”

Goodbye, dear programmatic poet. We believed in you.

Google Alters Search to Handle More Complex Queries – NYTimes
Search gets semantic as Google quietly replaces keyword based search algorithms with Hummingbird, which understands context.

Facebook Launches Advanced AI Effort to Find Meaning in Your Posts – MIT Technology Review
Facebook introduces “deep learning,” or more advanced machine learning and AI, to uncover more meaning in all our data.

N.S.A. Gathers Data on Social Connections of U.S. Citizens – NYTimes
As we might have expected, the NSA is conducting social network analysis or “large-scale graph analysis on very large sets of communications metadata.” Immersion is still a great tool for visualizing and understanding what your own metadata social graph looks like.

NSA Internet Spying Sparks Race to Create Offshore Havens for Data Privacy – WSJ.com
As trust in US-based internet companies falters, international alternatives jump at the opportunity and compete on local law.

The Extremely Quantified Self: Meet Rachel Kalmar, Who Wears 21 Fitness Trackers at the Same Time (Video) – AllThingsD
Kalmar suggests that even as she collects so much data, it’s all locked up in proprietary silos. This is a recurring theme in the world of personal data that I’ll explore further in a breakout session at the upcoming Quantified Self conference.

From Anonymous to Bitcoin, The Good Wife Is the Most Tech-Savvy Show on TV – Wired Opinion
Clive Thompson shares his enthusiasm for responsible and nuanced depictions of technology in fiction as they shape the way we see the world. Adding The Good Wife to the Netflix queue…

else 9.23: From “Pulp to Prototype” and Other Good Reads

By - September 22, 2013

This week we’ve been thinking a lot about driverless cars and related data-driven innovations in transportation. (We even saw one up close this week at Google Zeitgeist.) We looked at Google’s newest effort to extend life with data in its new company, Calico. We thought about the relationship between science fiction and technological development, and we’re excited about a new crop of literary takes on tech industry.

As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

 

How a self-driving car sees the world, Popsci.

Inside Google’s Quest To Popularize Self-Driving Cars – Popular Science
A long-read look at the current state of Google’s driverless car program.

Tesla’s Elon Musk says self-driving cars will be produced by 2016 – Daily Mail
Will healthy competition drive innovation? Tesla throws down the gauntlet with a tighter timeline to put driverless cars on the road.

A Self-Driving Crash Test – Stanford Center for Internet and Society
Bryant Walker Smith poses an interesting hypothetical for tackling fuzzy questions about liability in driverless car accidents.

California finally legalizes Lyft, SideCar, and other rideshare app firms – Ars Technica
California Public Utilities Commission legitimizes ridesharing, setting standards requiring background checks, driver training, and insurance coverage, so expect to see more pink mustashes on the road.

TIME Talks to Google CEO Larry Page About Its New Venture to Extend Human Life – TIME
Google’s Calico aims to use data to extend human life. John was reminded of the end of The Search on Google and the question of immortality.

Digital Advertising Alliance Exits Do Not Track Group – Adweek
Might this be the end of Do Not Track efforts? Multistakeholderism is at an impasse.

Science Fiction shapes the way we think about technology.

Why Today’s Inventors Need to Read More Science Fiction – The Atlantic
An MIT Media Lab course “Science Fiction to Science Fabrication” aims to connect visions for the near future with the makers and builders realizing our technological future. “Reading science fiction is like an ethics class for inventors.”

Project Hieroglyph – Future Tense
This podcast introduces a center for connecting writers and scientists in an effort to inspire science fiction with a more optimistic take.

The Deepest of Webs – Faz
Evgeny Morozov reviews Thomas Pynchon’s Bleeding Edge, which came out this week. It takes place in the tech scene in New York in the period between the dot com bust and before 9/11.

Dave Eggers’s ‘The Circle’ Takes Vengeance on Google, Facebook – Wall Street Journal
Egger’s new novel tackles the tech giants head on.

Did Dave Eggers ‘Rewrite’ Kate Losse’s Book? – The Atlantic Wire
Truth is stranger than fiction it seems, because Eggers new book sounds a lot like Kate Losse‘s The Boy Kings, based on her experience as employee number 51 at Facebook. Guess we’ll have to read both now.

else 9.16: Start Making Sense

By - September 16, 2013

This week, we’re excited about what the new M7 sensors mean for iPhone activity tracking, we’re thinking about how to rebuild trust in the internet and tech companies post-Snowden, and we’re listening to some music that plays with the boundaries between analog and digital. As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

Apple’s M7 Motion Sensing Coprocessor Is The Wizard Behind The Curtain For The iPhone 5s – TechCrunch
One of the most interesting new features of the iPhone 5S is the M7 sensors that bring fitness tracking to the devices we already carry in our pockets, making it easier for us to all become quantified selves without having to remember to wear our Fitbits or Jawbones.

M7 motion coprocessor will make tracking walking, running, or even driving more efficient.

This bracelet could replace your passwords, your car keys, and even your fingerprints – The Verge
Using ECG as a unique biomarker, the Nymi might introduce new ways of using our physical attributes as digital identifiers.

E-ZPasses Get Read All Over New York (Not Just At Toll Booths) – Forbes
A hacked E-ZPass reveals other checkpoints where it is surreptitiously read on the road. Must we assume that if a sensor is present, it will be read?

Video: Google Finally Explains the Tech Behind Their Autonomous Cars – PopSci
It’s a little old, but it’s a great walk through of what’s going on with driverless cars. We’re especially intrigued by the programmed signaling that goes on at four-way intersection.

Government Announces Steps to Restore Confidence on Encryption Standards – NYTimes
NIST needs to restore trust after it was revealed that the NSA is able to break encryption standards.

CloudFlare CEO: ‘Insane’ NSA gag order is costing U.S. tech firms customers – Washington Post
Customers demand greater transparency, but there are barriers to disclosing data requests details that explain tech companies’ interactions with the NSA.

Government Secrecy and the Generation Gap – FT
Bruce Schneier writes that the culture of loyalty and secrecy that intelligence agencies relies on is breaking down with generational differences. Expect more whistleblowers.

Dawn of Midi – Radiolab
This Radiolab short features Dawn of Midi, a band that plays with the boundaries between acoustic and electronic music production. We’ve gone from analog to digital and back again. Worth a listen for the music, and for the description of the process we’re going through as our tools expand our understanding of what we might be capable.

else 9.9: We Got Yer Star Trek Right Here

By - September 09, 2013

This week in our round up we look at near-future advances in body scanners, self-driving sensors, and robots. We also read about what happens next as the internet’s fundamental trust architecture is on shaky grounds with the latest NSA revelations.

As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

Holy Spock! The Star Trek Medical Tricorder Is Real, And It’s Only $150Gizmodo
The stuff of science fiction eventually inspires real technology. The SCOUT body scanner reads “your pulse transit time, heart rate, electrical heart activity, temperature, heart rate variability and blood oxygenation” in less than ten seconds.

Self-driving cars will bristle with sensorsCNET
There are a lot of layers of data that allow the driverless cars to “see” and navigate the world around them. Part of an ongoing series on the topic.

Bosch lidar (light detection and ranging) sensors turning the world around the driverless car into data.

Robots: Is the uncanny valley real?BBC
Is the threshold for “creepiness” shifting as we become more familiar with our new robot friends?

The US government has betrayed the internet. We need to take it backThe Guardian
Now that the trust infrastructure of the internet has been called into question, Bruce Schneier rallies technologists and engineers to blow more whistles and expose details about the how the NSA is getting around encryption. Bruce is an important voice to follow in this story, and he’s a Fellow at the Berkman Center along with Sara.

Verizon-F.C.C. Court Fight Takes On Regulating Net
New York Times
Meanwhile, net neutrality, that is whether or not content providers could pay infrastructure providers like Verizon for special delivery privileges, is (always) up for debate. Another important axis around which our story spins.

Consumer Subject Review Boards: A Thought ExperimentStanford Law Review Online
What’s the worst that could happen with advertisers using your data? Ryan Calo suggests asymmetric manipulation of data is the real concern and proposes a Consumer Subject Review Board to review ethics of data use.

Facebook Delays Controversial Privacy Policy ChangeThe Huffington Post
Facebook is holding off on policy changes that would allow them to use your likeness in an advertisement. Remember the last time they tried to do that? In short, this is going to happen.

else 9.3: Staring at the Tiny Screens

By - September 03, 2013

This week: Gartner’s latest hype cycle addresses the relationship between humans and machines, moral panics about our attention and time resurface, UPS optimizes drop offs around the happiness of drivers, Bitcoin’s regulatory environment gets messy, and data brokers take steps towards improved consumer transparency. As always, if you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

Gartner’s 2013 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies Maps Out Evolving Relationship Between Humans and Machines – Gartner
Gartner’s latest hype cycle on emerging technologies focuses on the relationship between humans and machines. Any one of these technologies stand as examples of how data is shaping our world, and how our world is becoming data.

Google Glass and a Futuristic Vision of Fashion – Vogue
Wearable tech gets the haute couture treatment in the September issue of Vogue. The spread mixes retrofuturist aesthetic with modernist architecture. This isn’t the first time Google Glass has gone high-fashion.

Vogue Goes Back to the Future. Don’t expect enlightenment here. 

We’ve seen a streak of moral panics about how technology is changing how we relate to others around us; that we are getting out of touch with being present. Rebecca Solnit walks through the evolution, and does a poetic job of noting how we’re letting technology break up our time, and how we might reconnect with the physical world. Mike Rugnetta cuts through the language that gives agency to our devices, when we should be taking ownership over our decisions about how we use technology. Charlene deGuzman’s painful but true I Forgot My Phone gets the NYT treatment, and Clive Thompson suggests that Glass will only be most useful to interrupt or augment our attention when it matters.

The Giant Hurdle For The Internet Of Things – Popsci
What will the protocol to connect and integrate the the Internet of Things look like? There’s lots of work to be done here. Larger, cheaper wireless networks like Flutter could help connect sensor devices.

Unhappy Truckers and Other Algorithmic Problems – Nautilus
Tom Vanderbilt (author of Traffic, which we’ve also been reading), writes about the challenges of modeling the human aspects of the traveling salesman problem in UPS delivery optimization. “But modeling the real world, with constraints like melting ice cream and idiosyncratic human behavior, is often where the real challenge lies.”

Bitcoin’s complex and changing regulatory environment – Pandodaily
As cryptographic currencies like Bitcoin gain policy makers’ and regulators‘ attention, things are getting complicated.

A Data Broker Offers a Peek Behind the Curtain – NYTimes
Acxiom will launch a consumer-facing data management interface at AbouttheData.com to give us the opportunity to update and correct the demographic data they have on us. This is an important step towards improved communication and transparency between data brokers and consumers. (Caveat: John is on the Board of Acxiom.)

Health apps run into privacy snags – FT
Research reveals how free health tracking apps like MapMyRun are sharing their data (with as many as 70 third parties). Another reminder that free services are never really free.

Thoughts on privacy – Doc Searls
Doc Searls walks us through a brief history of privacy and the internet. He talks about the human instinct to talk about privacy as a bodily sense of ownership; our physical world norms aren’t matching up with  digital realities. Our take: we still haven’t caught up with those evolving norms, but what if we are moving towards a hybrid reality where physical and digital norms are merging?

else 8.26: Getting a Little Too Comfortable with Technology

By - August 26, 2013

This week in the else round up we explore the responsibilities of technology builders and designers, what it will take for 3D printers and autonomous vehicles to go mainstream, and how humans will always find ways to misuse technology. If you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

Addicted to Apps – The New York Times
“We cannot rely on the makers of new technology to think about the moral and privacy implications.” This article walks us through the arc of seduction of new technologies, from distrust of the creepy to dependence on the critical. Outlines many of the reasons we’re tackling the societal implications of data in the book.

Addicted to Apps, The New York Times

The Machine Zone: This Is Where You Go When You Just Can’t Stop Looking at Pictures on Facebook – The Atlantic
Natasha Dow Schüll’s work on slot machine “Addiction by Design” might explain the pleasures of infinite scrolls and click throughs on Facebook photo albums. Incidentally, the 99% Invisible podcast mentioned is also great.

The Rise of the Period Apps: Where Big Data Meets Girlie Graphics – The Cut
Women have been tracking this for a long time. Now we have pink, flowery apps developed by men to help us make better data.

Marketing to the Quantified Self – Ad Exchanger
“First-party data” from self-quantifiers is closer to the consumers, but requires more value and trust in the exchange.

Why bitcoin has a firm foothold in the online gambling world – CoinDesk
Bitcoin gambling sites might have the added benefit of trustworthiness and transparency.

3D Printing Goes Mainstream Retail – The Atlantic
Consumers need a little hand-holding from engineers to bring their 3D printing needs to life at the UPS Store.

A 3-D Scanner Reaches for the Masses – The New York Times
The Digitizer desktop scanner will make 3-D printing more accessible to the masses.

Beyond the tech, autonomous driving is an issue of trust – and parking – Digital Trends
It’s going to take a lot of infrastructure changes, like databases of parking spaces, for driverless cars to take off at scale.

Do our brains pay a price for GPS? – The Boston Globe
GPS impacts on our mental maps and way-finding abilities. What happens when our cars start doing the navigation work as well?

NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests – Wall Street Journal
Even with controls in place, technology will be misused. Human jealousy gets the better of NSA officers, code: LOVEINT.

How We Killed Privacy in 4 Easy Steps – Foreign Policy
“A legal framework that has remained largely static since the 1970s, significant changes in our use of rapidly evolving technology, commercial providers’ increasingly intrusive tracking of our every online habit, and a growth in non-state threats that has made governments the world over obsess about uncovering these dangers.”

Terms and Conditions May Apply
This documentary picks apart the lengthy TOS that we all accept without reading. The whole thing is available on Youtube [looks like it’s been taken down, but here’s the trailer and some showtimes].

else 8.19: Why We Should Replace the Turing Test

By - August 19, 2013

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(image) Among many other things (we usually add 20-30 items into our book’s Evernote account each week), this past week we read about developments in brain-computer interfaces, and how connecting smart devices introduces new vulnerabilities. We also read about how policy and ethics questions need to catch up with technology that makes surveillance easier. If you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the “else” feed, either as an email newsletter or through RSS.

 

Why Can’t My Computer Understand Me? – The New Yorker
Hector Levesque  makes the case to replace Turing tests with something that requires a little more common sense: anaphoras where the reference isn’t always linguistically clear. That requires logical finesse, rather than big data processing of existing answers found in webpages.

Brown University creates first wireless, implanted brain-computer interface – ExtremeTech
We’re getting closer and closer to  wearable brain-computer interfaces.

What Does It Really Matter If Companies Are Tracking Us Online? – The Atlantic
Ryan Calo’s recent paper makes the case that what is really at stake in the “creepiness” of advertising is the ability for corporations to take advantage of and exploit data around consumer irrationalities (in the behavioral economics sense).

The Ethics of Saving Lives With Autonomous Cars Are Far Murkier Than You Think – Wired
Interesting questions: “Do we now need a peek under the algorithmic hood before we purchase or ride in a robot car?…Shouldn’t informed consent be required to operate or ride in something that may purposely cause our own deaths?”

Welcome to the “Internet of Things,” where even lights aren’t hacker safe – Arstechnica
Connected devices introduce more vulnerabilities. Ease of use, in this case the ability to add more devices to control lights, often trumps more secure designs.

When Cars Crash Like Computers – The Atlantic
“When we make pieces of our infrastructure ‘smart’ with computers, we also give them the other characteristics of computers, like bugs, crashes, hackability, and downtime.”

3D printing failures shared online – BBC
Gallery of “Spaghetti” images of failed 3-D printer models. Strangely beautiful…

How A ‘Deviant’ Philosopher Built Palantir, A CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut – Forbes
Interesting profile of Alex Karp, the man behind Palantir, the software running the data mining analytics of the NSA.

Zimmermann’s Law: PGP inventor and Silent Circle co-founder Phil Zimmermann on the surveillance society – Gigaom
Om Malik talks with Zimmerman about the need for policy to catch up to reflect our democratic values when Moore’s law makes surveillance easier.

People Are Changing Their Internet Habits Now That They Know The NSA Is Watching – Fast Company
News of the Prism and surveillance might actually be the spark that gets average consumers to start engaging with their privacy settings.

Source: Annalect

The staring match between The Man and bitcoin: nobody’s blinked yet – CoinDesk
After two secure email servers shut down this last week, enter Bitmessage. It uses Bitcoin protocols to secure messages so that only users with the correct key can read them. There are no central servers, no users lists.

When the next Ernest Hemingway dies, who will own his Facebook account? – Quartz
Walks through what it takes for an estate to access the status updates and tweets of writers when they die, the modern day equivalent of letters archived in an attic. Current EULA policies don’t make it easy.

The debut of “else”: Surveillance Everywhere and the Technological Wild West

By - August 13, 2013

As we’re working on the book, Sara and I are planning on sharing some of the news items and blog posts that catch our attention each week. We’ll also plan on talking through some of the things we’re reading and working on in this space. In keeping with boolean condition logic of the if/then working title for the book, we’ll be tagging these posts as “else.” Links aren’t necessarily endorsements, but they do point to ideas that got us thinking this week.

If you want to keep up with what we’re reading/thinking about on a weekly basis, the best way is to subscribe to the ELSE feed, either as an email newsletter (coming soon) or through RSS.

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This week we look at challenges in the using quantified self data, developments in the NSA surveillance coverage, and round out with a few throwbacks to the Victorian age of technology. On to the links:

Inside the Nike+ Accelerator: Fueling the quantified-self movement – Engadget

TechStars accelerator working on Nike+ to build innovation on the Nike platform. Article talks a lot about the importance of opening up the Nike+ API for development innovation (right now it’s only open to these ten accelerator companies).

Why The Quantified Self Needs A Monopoly – ReadWrite

Highlights one of the big barriers to consumer adoption right now, that is correlating all these quantified self data sources into one, meaningful view. To do that you need to a) be able to get the data into one place, b) have it speak to each other, and c) know what you are looking at once you can see it all in one place. We might argue that you don’t need an Apple or Microsoft monopoly for that necessarily. But we will need tools that pull this together; maybe something more along the lines of Mint.

The Public-Private Surveillance Partnership – Bloomberg

Bruce Schneier walks us through the implicit business models that got us into the current surveillance state: “Imagine the government passed a law requiring all citizens to carry a tracking device. Such a law would immediately be found unconstitutional. Yet we all carry mobile phones.” [Incidentally, Schneier is also a Fellow at the Berkman Center this year along with Sara].

This Recycling Bin Is Stalking You – The Atlantic Cities

Recycling bins in London are tracking MAC addresses from passing smartphones and Wifi-enabled devices, essentially bringing tracking cookies from the internet into the physical world. Turns out this might actually be illegal.

The Atlantic Cities

 

A Cheap Spying Tool With a High Creepy Factor – NYTimes

Security researcher Brendan O’Connor uses cheap Raspberry Pi devices to monitor Wifi signals, proving that conducting surveillance is becoming easier, no matter who you are.

Other Agencies Clamor for Data N.S.A. Compiles – NYTimes

Once the data is in a format where it can be activated, others will find new uses for it.

Searching Big Data for ‘Digital Smoke Signals’ – NYTimes

The United Nations Global Pulse team is using sentiment analysis and mobile data to catch early signals for global economic trends to develop faster, more adaptive and responsive aid programs.

Why the Sun is Setting on the Wild West of Ride-Sharing – Wired

Car sharing dropoffs at airports are started to see a crackdown in SFO. Policies still protect taxi and limo service domain here and new regulations requiring insurance companies could increase operating costs. This could slow down the markets where consumers are taking underused assets and making them liquid. John recently wrote about how Uber saved the day in a recent travel snafu.

3-D Printing the 19th Century – NYTimes

Martin Galese is bringing back patents from a bygone era, 3-D printing them in all their beautifully-designed glory. Some of these designs might not have been easily manufactured in their time.

Last week Sara was reading Rebecca Solnit’s River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West. The book looks at the historical context around Muybridge’s photographic technology developments that increased the shutter speeds and introduced the ability to almost slow down time into smaller knowable bits. These developments paved the way for modern cinema, but also ran parallel to Victorian explorations of scientific discovery. Sara wrote about some interesting parallels with Muybridge’s body movement studies and the Quantified Self movement; film allowed us to slow down and dissect the bodies’ gate; sensors like the Fitbit allow us to track a walking gate all day long.